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GEOINFORMATICS

by / Saturday, 13 August 2011 / Published in Uncategorized

Geoinformatics

Introduction:

It is now evident that high productivity and growth rates achieved during the green revolution era are no longer being sustained to meet the needs of still increasing population in the country. Past growth sources have nearly exhausted and there is also no scope for expansion of crop land. Indeed for competing land uses will likely reduce area under food grain crops. Recent development in the field of geo informatics have special advantage in terms of generating state-of-the art informatics capturing the spatial variability, vulnerability and dynamism of agricultural system. This information would enable us to provide valuable scientific heights into the factors contributing to the low productivity which in turn would form the essential ingredients to evolve site suitable and effective strategies to enhance it.

Geoinformatics:

Geoinformatics is a term to describe a variety of efforts to promote collaboration between computer science and the geosciences to solve complex scientific questions. It is the science and technology of gathering, analysing, interpreting, distributing and using geographic information. It includes a broad range of disciplines – surveying and mapping, remote sensing, geographic information systems (gis) and geographic positioning system (gps).

The main components of geoinformatics are as follows

Cartography

Geodesy

Geographic information systems

Global navigation satellite systems

Photogrammetry

Remote sensing

Web mapping

Cartography:

Cartography is the stud

Y and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modelled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively.

In cartography, technology has continually changed in order to meet the demands of new generations of mapmakers and map users. The first maps were manually constructed with brushes and parchment; therefore, varied in quality and were limited in distribution.

Advances in electronic technology in the 20th century ushered in another revolution in cartography. Ready availability of computers and peripherals such as monitors, plotters, printers, scanners (remote and document) and analytic stereo plotters, along with computer programs for visualization, image processing, spatial analysis, and database management, have democratized and greatly expanded the making of maps. These days most commercial-quality maps are made using software that falls into one of three main types: cad, gis and specialized illustration software. These tools lead to increasingly dynamic, interactive maps that can be manipulated digitally also at real time.

Geodesy:

Geodesy also named geodetics, is the scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the earth, including its gravitational field, in a three-dimensional time-varying space. Geodesists also study geodynamical phenomena such as crustal motion, tides, and polar motion. For this they design global and national control networks, using space and terrestrial techniques while relying on datum and coordinate systems.

Gis:

A geographic information system (gis) or geospatial information system is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographically referenced data. In the simplest terms, gis is the merging of cartography, statistical analysis, and database technology.

Applications:

Gis may allow emergency planners to easily calculate emergency response times and the movement of response resources (for logistics) in the case of a natural disaster.

Gis might be used to find wetlands that need protection strategies regarding pollution.

Gis can be used by a company to site a new business location to take advantage of gis data identified trends to respond to a previously under-served market.

Gis can be used to track the spread of emerging infectious disease threats. This allows for informed pandemic planning and enhanced preparedness.

Satellite navigation systems:

Satellite navigation is a system of satellites that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage. It allows small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude) to within a few metres using time signals transmitted along a line-of-sight by radio from satellites. Receivers calculate the precise time as well as position, which can be used as a reference for scientific experiments. A satellite navigation system with global coverage may be termed a global navigation satellite system or gnss.

Uses:

The original motivation for satellite navigation was for military applications. Satellite navigation allows for hitherto impossible precision in the delivery of weapons to targets, greatly increasing their lethality whilst reducing inadvertent casualties from mis-directed weapons.

The ability to supply satellite navigation signals is also the ability to deny their availability. The operator of a satellite navigation system potentially has the ability to degrade or eliminate satellite navigation services over any territory it desires.

In these ways, satellite navigation can be regarded as a force multipier. In particular, the ability to reduce unintended casualties has particular advantages for wars where public relations are an important aspect of warfare. For these reasons, a satellite navigation system is an essential asset for any aspiring military power.

Photogrammetry:

Photogrammetry is the practice of determining the geometric properties of objects from photographic images. Photogrammetry is as old as modern photographyand can be dated to the mid-nineteenth century.

In the simplest example, the distance between two points that lie on a plane parallel to the photographic image plane can be determined by measuring their distance on the image, if the scale of the image is known. This is done by multiplying the measured distance by 1/s.

Applications:

This method is commonly emplo

Yed in collision engineering, especially with automobiles. When litigation for accidents occurs and engineers need to determine the exact deformation present in the vehicle, it is common for several years to have passed and the only evidence that remains is crime scene photographs taken by the police. Photogrammetry is used to determine how much the car in question was deformed, which relates to the amount of energy required to produce that deformation. The energy can then be used to determine important information about the crash (such as the velocity at time of impact).

Remote sensing:

Since the early days of satellite remote sensing in the 1950’s, accessibility, quality, and scope of remote sensing has been continuously improving, making it a rich data source with a wide range of applications. Today, the use of remote sensing techniques and data is commonplace within many disciplines in the natural sciences.

Remote sensing is defined as the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon, without making physical contact with the object. In modern usage, the term generally refers to the use of aerial sensor technologies to detect and classify objects on earth (both on the surface, and in the atmosphere and oceans) by means of propagated signals (e.g. Electromagnetic radiation emitted from aircraft or satellites).

Web mapping:

Web mapping is the process of designing, implementing, generating and delivering maps on the world wide web and its product. While web mapping primarily deals with technological issues, web cartography additionally studies theoretic aspects: the use of web maps, the evaluation and optimization of techniques and workflows, the usability of web maps, social aspects, and more. Web gis is similar to web mapping but with an emphasis on analysis, processing of project specific geodata and exploratory aspects. Often the terms web gis and web mapping are used synonymously, even if they don’t mean exactly the same. In fact, the border between web maps and web gis is blurry. Web maps are often a presentation me

Dia in web gis and web maps are increasingly gaining analytical capabilities. A special case of web maps are mobile maps, displayed on mobile computing devices, such as mobile phones, smart phones, gps and other devices. If the maps on these devices are displayed by a mobile web browser or web user agent, they can be regarded as mobile web maps. If the mobile web maps also display context and location sensitive information, such as points of interest, the term location-based services is frequently used.

Conclusion:

Many fields benefit from geoinformatics, including urban planning and land use management, in-car navigation systems, public health, environmental modelling and analysis, military, transport network planning and management, agriculture, meteorology and climate change, oceanography, business location planning, architecture and archaeological reconstruction, telecommunications, criminology and crime simulation, aviation and maritime transport. The importance of the spatial dimension in assessing, monitoring and modelling various issues and problems related to sustainable management of natural resources is recognized all over the world. Many government and non government agencies started to use the spatial data for managing their day to day activities. Thus india needs to focus more on the emerging new technologies and adopt them for a better society.

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